1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 AVG
Location of Median Justice -0.38 -0.51 -0.99 -0.58 -0.13 0.09 -0.03 -0.21 -0.02 0.22 0.47 0.56 0.88 0.91 0.91 1.02 0.57 0.4 0.64 0.26 0.61 0.54 0.42 0.52 0.15 -0.78 -0.8 -0.54 -0.58 -0.32 -0.84 -0.78 0.18 0.45 0.78 1.03 0.67 0.64 0.61 0.48 0.21 0.13 0.15 0.09 0.03 0.47 0.72 0.66 0.78 0.76 0.91 1.01 0.8 0.86 0.66 0.71 0.69 0.57 0.52 00.64 0.62 0.65 0.7 00.48 0.31 0.23 0.18 0.07 -0.07 0.35 0.14 0.3
Court Average 0.03 -0.19 -0.76 -0.58 -0.63 -0.61 -0.46 -0.34 -0.51 -0.43 -0.35 -0.29 0.37 0.41 0.42 0.37 0.09 -0.07 -0.18 -0.42 -0.43 -0.36 -0.38 -0.33 -0.37 -0.8 -0.77 -0.66 -0.74 -0.73 -0.89 -0.91 -0.52 -0.23 -0.12 0.14 0.07 -0.03 0.52 0.34 0.13 0.09 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.09 0.12 0.08 0.01 -0.15 -0.16 -0.17 -0.25 0.08 0.66 0.63 0.45 0.53 0.5 0.48 0.44 0.44 0.4 0.33 0.29 0.26 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.44 0.43 -0.06
Presidential Party D R D R D R D R    
Control of Congress D R D R D (equal) D R (equal) R D    
Notable Cases          
Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire
 
Korematsu v. United States
                 
Brown v. Board
of Education
           
Mapp v. Ohio
 
Gideon v. Wainwright
NY Times v.Sullivan
 
Miranda v. Arizona
         
Furman v. Georgia
Roe v. Wade
   
Gregg v. Georgia
 
Board of Regents of U. Cal v. Bakke
                 
Hustler Magazine v. Falwell
     
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
             
Bush v. Gore

Boy Scouts of America v. Dale
       
Kelo v. New London, CT
       
Chief Justice Charles Evan Hughes-0.45 -0.3 0.3 0.84 Harlan Stone0.4 0.27 0.18 0.52 0.58 Fred Vinson0.44 0.58 0.88 1.11 1.23 1.44 1.35 Earl Warren0 -0.45 -1.07 -1.25 -1.51 -1.56 -1.53 -1.37 -1.47 -1.34 -1.29 -1.08 -1.16 -1.23 -1.24 -1.25 Warren Burger2.02 2.26 2.5 2.32 2.27 2.19 2.04 1.93 1.6 1.45 1.21 1.38 1.5 1.35 1.54 1.87 2.01 William Rehnquist3.24 2.83 2.69 2.5 2.26 1.96 1.89 1.71 1.71 1.68 1.54 1.49 1.71 1.62 1.63 1.39 1.22 1.39 1.5 John Roberts1.48 1.49 1.44 0.88
Associate Justice James Clark McReynolds2.9 2.91 2.68 2.18 * -0.19 Wiley Blount Rutledge -1.13 -1.16 -1.33 -1.16 -1.41 -1.75 -1.85 Sherman Minton1.16 1.31 1.37 1.19 0.86 0.88 0.92 William J. Brennan-0.62 -0.74 -0.75 -0.91 -0.92 -0.77 -1.01 -0.88 -0.74 -0.9 -1.06 -1.1 -0.98 -0.89 -0.99 -1.14 -1.41 -1.75 -2.03 -2.61 -2.9 -3.01 -3 -2.97 -2.82 -2.81 -2.65 -2.95 -3.14 -3.24 -3.5 -3.59 -3.7 -3.74 David Souter0.97 0.58 0.16 -0.37 -0.53 -0.57 -0.62 -0.77 -0.9 -1.26 -1.4 -1.52 -1.59 -1.72 -1.69 -1.58 -1.47 -1.48 -1.04
Associate Justice * * -1.74 Felix Frankfurter-1.29 -1.22 -0.71 0.09 0.42 0.43 0.41 0.67 1.03 0.91 0.65 0.38 0.24 0.08 0.05 0.38 0.39 0.7 0.9 1.28 1.6 1.77 1.85 1.86 Arthur Golberg-0.81 -0.95 -0.61 Abe Fortas-1.26 -1.35 -1.16 -1.01 n/a Harry Blackmun1.9 1.85 1.49 1.35 1.06 0.88 0.65 0.27 0.11 -0.07 -0.17 -0.49 -0.56 -0.11 -0.23 -0.79 -0.96 -0.96 -1 -0.88 -1.19 -1.44 -1.59 -1.86 Stephen Breyer-0.51 -0.74 -0.99 -1.07 -1.06 -1.05 -1.41 -1.42 -1.4 -1.32 -1.21 -1.48 -1.63 -1.63 -0.22
Associate Justice * * * -0.54 -0.5 William O. Douglas-2.91 -3.04 -2.98 -2.67 -2.3 -1.9 -1.71 -1.43 -1.53 -1.75 -1.61 -1.5 -1.71 -2.37 -2.97 -3.57 -4.03 -4.43 -4.72 -4.96 -5.1 -5.22 -5.32 -5.41 -5.51 -5.66 -5.79 -5.91 -6.02 -6.12 -6.2 -6.28 -6.35 -6.36 -6.4 -6.46 John Paul Stevens0.03 -0.14 -0.03 -0.31 -0.28 -0.28 -0.27 -0.57 -0.62 -0.51 -0.49 -0.6 -0.53 -0.66 -1.07 -1.77 -2.16 -2.33 -2.54 -2.9 -3.12 -3.21 -3.16 -3.11 -3 -2.84 -2.73 -2.58 -2.52 -2.41 -2.25 -2.2 -1.99 -2.85
Associate Justice Hugo Black-2.91 -3.19 -3.28 -3.31 -3.2 -2.94 -2.62 -2.5 -2.12 -1.94 -1.81 -1.66 -1.69 -1.64 -1.52 -1.23 -1.57 -1.65 -1.93 -2.11 -2.17 -2.06 -2.02 -1.89 -1.79 -1.71 -1.47 -0.98 -0.61 -0.32 -0.11 -0.01 0.08 0.06 Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr.1.52 1.31 1.26 1.15 0.96 0.72 0.46 0.8 0.81 0.82 0.88 1.09 0.95 0.68 0.79 0.76 Anthony Kennedy1.15 1.42 1.33 1.13 0.77 0.91 0.74 0.69 0.58 0.7 0.65 0.75 0.96 0.91 1.01 0.85 0.74 0.51 0.39 0.35 0.14 -0.4
Associate Justice * * * * 2.04 Stanley Forman Reed-0.99 -1.09 -1.01 -0.63 -0.24 0.18 0.03 -0.21 -0.01 0.25 0.56 0.7 1.07 1.18 1.22 1.3 1.48 1.49 1.09 0.87 Charles Evans Whittaker1.38 1.49 1.31 1.24 Byron White-0.04 0.02 -0.07 -0.05 0.11 0.19 0.15 0.29 0.61 0.78 1.05 0.61 0.61 0.53 0.32 -0.07 -0.05 0.14 0.07 0.02 0.47 0.75 0.96 1.18 1.2 0.96 1.03 0.8 0.56 0.53 0.52 Ruth Bader Ginsburg-0.33 -0.59 -0.66 -0.87 -1.11 -1.34 -1.69 -1.78 -1.78 -1.77 -1.79 -1.69 -1.45 -1.55 -1.51 0.13
Associate Justice Owen Roberts-0.04 0.38 1.04 1.73 1.95 2.22 2.6 2.97 Harold Burton0.49 0.55 0.89 0.96 0.96 0.98 0.93 1.23 1.32 1.29 1.29 1.28 1.13 Potter Stewart0.9 0.66 0.54 0.49 0.65 0.49 0.66 0.84 0.92 0.48 0.68 0.63 0.61 0.21 0.19 0.55 0.42 0.54 0.49 0.32 0.55 0.49 0.67 Sandra Day O'Connor1.5 1.65 1.58 1.45 1.24 1.34 1.52 1.44 1.43 1.01 0.56 0.7 0.88 0.67 0.71 0.82 0.91 0.78 0.73 0.49 0.31 0.23 0.18 0.08 -0.04 Samuel Alito1.4 1.38 0.9
Associate Justice Harlan Stone-0.81 -0.78 -0.78 -0.32 0.4 Robert Jackson0.23 0.27 0.19 0.24 0.64 1.05 1.18 1.33 0.94 0.82 0.74 0.96 0.87 John Marshall Harlan II0.91 1.14 1.35 1.64 1.78 1.91 2 2.29 2.51 2.52 2.33 2.2 1.88 1.32 0.81 0.68 0.59 William Rehnquist3.98 4.24 4.32 4.43 4.37 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.18 4.03 3.94 3.87 3.68 3.48 Antonin Scalia1.43 1.58 1.71 1.89 2.05 2.38 2.4 2.48 2.72 2.97 3.2 3.3 3.31 3.44 3.47 3.37 3.13 2.93 2.71 2.69 2.76 2.71 2.13
Associate Justice Pierce Butler1.84 2.1 Frank Murphy-1.58 -1.54 -1.5 -1.64 -1.74 -1.46 -1.35 -1.78 -1.72 -1.6 Tom C. Clark1.04 1.09 1.18 1.13 0.6 0.17 0.08 0.26 0.61 0.54 0.44 0.78 0.41 0.21 0.18 0.01 -0.07 0.07 Thurgood Marshall-0.96 -0.97 -0.9 -0.93 -1.03 -1.32 -1.48 -1.54 -2.11 -2.43 -2.73 -3.12 -3.4 -3.59 -3.72 -3.89 -3.95 -4.02 -4.09 -4.28 -4.42 -4.49 -4.46 -4.31 Clarence Thomas2.73 2.99 3.34 3.52 3.62 3.72 3.76 3.83 3.83 3.93 3.98 4.21 4.34 4.5 4.67 4.78 4.83 -0.07
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes-0.45 -0.3 0.3 0.84 Harlan Stone0.4 0.27 0.18 0.52 0.58 Fred Vinson0.44 0.58 0.88 1.11 1.23 1.44 1.35 Earl Warren0 -0.45 -1.07 -1.25 -1.51 -1.56 -1.53 -1.37 -1.47 -1.34 -1.29 -1.08 -1.16 -1.23 -1.24 -1.25 Warren Burger2.02 2.26 2.5 2.32 2.27 2.19 2.04 1.93 1.6 1.45 1.21 1.38 1.5 1.35 1.54 1.87 2.01 William Rehnquist3.24 2.83 2.69 2.5 2.26 1.96 1.89 1.71 1.71 1.68 1.54 1.49 1.71 1.62 1.63 1.39 1.22 1.39 1.5 John Roberts1.48 1.49 1.44 0.88
Associate Justice James Clark McReynolds2.9 2.91 2.68 2.18 * -0.19 Wiley Blount Rutledge-1.13 -1.16 -1.33 -1.16 -1.41 -1.75 -1.85 Sherman Minton1.16 1.31 1.37 1.19 0.86 0.88 0.92 William J. Brennan-0.62 -0.74 -0.75 -0.91 -0.92 -0.77 -1.01 -0.88 -0.74 -0.9 -1.06 -1.1 -0.98 -0.89 -0.99 -1.14 -1.41 -1.75 -2.03 -2.61 -2.9 -3.01 -3 -2.97 -2.82 -2.81 -2.65 -2.95 -3.14 -3.24 -3.5 -3.59 -3.7 -3.74 David Souter0.97 0.58 0.16 -0.37 -0.53 -0.57 -0.62 -0.77 -0.9 -1.26 -1.4 -1.52 -1.59 -1.72 -1.69 -1.58 -1.47 -1.48   -1.04
Associate Justice * * -1.74 Felix Frankfurter-1.29 -1.22 -0.71 0.09 0.42 0.43 0.41 0.67 1.03 0.91 0.65 0.38 0.24 0.08 0.05 0.38 0.39 0.7 0.9 1.28 1.6 1.77 1.85 1.86 Arthur Golberg-0.81 -0.95 -0.61 Abe Fortas-1.26 -1.35 -1.16 -1.01 n/a Harry Blackmun1.9 1.85 1.49 1.35 1.06 0.88 0.65 0.27 0.11 -0.07 -0.17 -0.49 -0.56 -0.11 -0.23 -0.79 -0.96 -0.96 -1 -0.88 -1.19 -1.44 -1.59 -1.86 Stephen Breyer-0.51 -0.74 -0.99 -1.07 -1.06 -1.05 -1.41 -1.42 -1.4 -1.32 -1.21 -1.48 -1.63 -1.63   -0.22
Associate Justice * * * -0.54 -0.5 William O. Douglas-2.91 -3.04 -2.98 -2.67 -2.3 -1.9 -1.71 -1.43 -1.53 -1.75 -1.61 -1.5 -1.71 -2.37 -2.97 -3.57 -4.03 -4.43 -4.72 -4.96 -5.1 -5.22 -5.32 -5.41 -5.51 -5.66 -5.79 -5.91 -6.02 -6.12 -6.2 -6.28 -6.35 -6.36 -6.4 -6.46 John Paul Stevens0.03 -0.14 -0.03 -0.31 -0.28 -0.28 -0.27 -0.57 -0.62 -0.51 -0.49 -0.6 -0.53 -0.66 -1.07 -1.77 -2.16 -2.33 -2.54 -2.9 -3.12 -3.21 -3.16 -3.11 -3 -2.84 -2.73 -2.58 -2.52 -2.41 -2.25 -2.2 -1.99   -2.85
Associate Justice Hugo Black-2.91 -3.19 -3.28 -3.31 -3.2 -2.94 -2.62 -2.5 -2.12 -1.94 -1.81 -1.66 -1.69 -1.64 -1.52 -1.23 -1.57 -1.65 -1.93 -2.11 -2.17 -2.06 -2.02 -1.89 -1.79 -1.71 -1.47 -0.98 -0.61 -0.32 -0.11 -0.01 0.08 0.06 Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr.1.52 1.31 1.26 1.15 0.96 0.72 0.46 0.8 0.81 0.82 0.88 1.09 0.95 0.68 0.79 0.76 Anthony Kennedy1.15 1.42 1.33 1.13 0.77 0.91 0.74 0.69 0.58 0.7 0.65 0.75 0.96 0.91 1.01 0.85 0.74 0.51 0.39 0.35 0.14   -0.4
Associate Justice * * * * 2.04 Stanley Forman Reed-0.99 -1.09 -1.01 -0.63 -0.24 0.18 0.03 -0.21 -0.01 0.25 0.56 0.7 1.07 1.18 1.22 1.3 1.48 1.49 1.09 0.87 Charles Evans Whittaker1.38 1.49 1.31 1.24 Byron White-0.04 0.02 -0.07 -0.05 0.11 0.19 0.15 0.29 0.61 0.78 1.05 0.61 0.61 0.53 0.32 -0.07 -0.05 0.14 0.07 0.02 0.47 0.75 0.96 1.18 1.2 0.96 1.03 0.8 0.56 0.53 0.52 Ruth Bader Ginsburg-0.33 -0.59 -0.66 -0.87 -1.11 -1.34 -1.69 -1.78 -1.78 -1.77 -1.79 -1.69 -1.45 -1.55 -1.51   0.13
Associate Justice Owen Roberts-0.04 0.38 1.04 1.73 1.95 2.22 2.6 2.97 Harold Burton0.49 0.55 0.89 0.96 0.96 0.98 0.93 1.23 1.32 1.29 1.29 1.28 1.13 Potter Stewart0.9 0.66 0.54 0.49 0.65 0.49 0.66 0.84 0.92 0.48 0.68 0.63 0.61 0.21 0.19 0.55 0.42 0.54 0.49 0.32 0.55 0.49 0.67 Sandra Day O'Connor1.5 1.65 1.58 1.45 1.24 1.34 1.52 1.44 1.43 1.01 0.56 0.7 0.88 0.67 0.71 0.82 0.91 0.78 0.73 0.49 0.31 0.23 0.18 0.08 -0.04 Samuel Alito1.4 1.38   0.9
Associate Justice Harlan Stone-0.81 -0.78 -0.78 -0.32 0.4 Robert Jackson0.23 0.27 0.19 0.24 0.64 1.05 1.18 1.33 0.94 0.82 0.74 0.96 0.87 John Marshall Harlan II0.91 1.14 1.35 1.64 1.78 1.91 2 2.29 2.51 2.52 2.33 2.2 1.88 1.32 0.81 0.68 0.59 William Rehnquist3.98 4.24 4.32 4.43 4.37 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.18 4.03 3.94 3.87 3.68 3.48 Antonin Scalia1.43 1.58 1.71 1.89 2.05 2.38 2.4 2.48 2.72 2.97 3.2 3.3 3.31 3.44 3.47 3.37 3.13 2.93 2.71 2.69 2.76 2.71   2.13
Associate Justice Pierce Butler1.84 2.1 Frank Murphy-1.58 -1.54 -1.5 -1.64 -1.74 -1.46 -1.35 -1.78 -1.72 -1.6 Tom C. Clark1.04 1.09 1.18 1.13 0.6 0.17 0.08 0.26 0.61 0.54 0.44 0.78 0.41 0.21 0.18 0.01 -0.07 0.07 Thurgood Marshall-0.96 -0.97 -0.9 -0.93 -1.03 -1.32 -1.48 -1.54 -2.11 -2.43 -2.73 -3.12 -3.4 -3.59 -3.72 -3.89 -3.95 -4.02 -4.09 -4.28 -4.42 -4.49 -4.46 -4.31 Clarence Thomas2.73 2.99 3.34 3.52 3.62 3.72 3.76 3.83 3.83 3.93 3.98 4.21 4.34 4.5 4.67 4.78 4.83   -0.07
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes-0.45 -0.3 0.3 0.84 Harlan Stone0.4 0.27 0.18 0.52 0.58 Fred Vinson0.44 0.58 0.88 1.11 1.23 1.44 1.35 Earl Warren0 -0.45 -1.07 -1.25 -1.51 -1.56 -1.53 -1.37 -1.47 -1.34 -1.29 -1.08 -1.16 -1.23 -1.24 -1.25 Warren Burger2.02 2.26 2.5 2.32 2.27 2.19 2.04 1.93 1.6 1.45 1.21 1.38 1.5 1.35 1.54 1.87 2.01 William Rehnquist3.24 2.83 2.69 2.5 2.26 1.96 1.89 1.71 1.71 1.68 1.54 1.49 1.71 1.62 1.63 1.39 1.22 1.39 1.5 John Roberts1.48 1.49 1.44 0.88
Associate Justice James Clark McReynolds2.9 2.91 2.68 2.18 * -0.19 Wiley Blount Rutledge-1.13 -1.16 -1.33 -1.16 -1.41 -1.75 -1.85 Sherman Minton1.16 1.31 1.37 1.19 0.86 0.88 0.92 William J. Brennan-0.62 -0.74 -0.75 -0.91 -0.92 -0.77 -1.01 -0.88 -0.74 -0.9 -1.06 -1.1 -0.98 -0.89 -0.99 -1.14 -1.41 -1.75 -2.03 -2.61 -2.9 -3.01 -3 -2.97 -2.82 -2.81 -2.65 -2.95 -3.14 -3.24 -3.5 -3.59 -3.7 -3.74 David Souter0.97 0.58 0.16 -0.37 -0.53 -0.57 -0.62 -0.77 -0.9 -1.26 -1.4 -1.52 -1.59 -1.72 -1.69 -1.58 -1.47 -1.48   -1.04
Associate Justice * * -1.74 Felix Frankfurter-1.29 -1.22 -0.71 0.09 0.42 0.43 0.41 0.67 1.03 0.91 0.65 0.38 0.24 0.08 0.05 0.38 0.39 0.7 0.9 1.28 1.6 1.77 1.85 1.86 Arthur Golberg-0.81 -0.95 -0.61 Abe Fortas-1.26 -1.35 -1.16 -1.01 n/a Harry Blackmun1.9 1.85 1.49 1.35 1.06 0.88 0.65 0.27 0.11 -0.07 -0.17 -0.49 -0.56 -0.11 -0.23 -0.79 -0.96 -0.96 -1 -0.88 -1.19 -1.44 -1.59 -1.86 Stephen Breyer-0.51 -0.74 -0.99 -1.07 -1.06 -1.05 -1.41 -1.42 -1.4 -1.32 -1.21 -1.48 -1.63 -1.63   -0.22
Associate Justice * * * -0.54 -0.5 William O. Douglas-2.91 -3.04 -2.98 -2.67 -2.3 -1.9 -1.71 -1.43 -1.53 -1.75 -1.61 -1.5 -1.71 -2.37 -2.97 -3.57 -4.03 -4.43 -4.72 -4.96 -5.1 -5.22 -5.32 -5.41 -5.51 -5.66 -5.79 -5.91 -6.02 -6.12 -6.2 -6.28 -6.35 -6.36 -6.4 -6.46 John Paul Stevens0.03 -0.14 -0.03 -0.31 -0.28 -0.28 -0.27 -0.57 -0.62 -0.51 -0.49 -0.6 -0.53 -0.66 -1.07 -1.77 -2.16 -2.33 -2.54 -2.9 -3.12 -3.21 -3.16 -3.11 -3 -2.84 -2.73 -2.58 -2.52 -2.41 -2.25 -2.2 -1.99   -2.85
Associate Justice Hugo Black-2.91 -3.19 -3.28 -3.31 -3.2 -2.94 -2.62 -2.5 -2.12 -1.94 -1.81 -1.66 -1.69 -1.64 -1.52 -1.23 -1.57 -1.65 -1.93 -2.11 -2.17 -2.06 -2.02 -1.89 -1.79 -1.71 -1.47 -0.98 -0.61 -0.32 -0.11 -0.01 0.08 0.06 Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr.1.52 1.31 1.26 1.15 0.96 0.72 0.46 0.8 0.81 0.82 0.88 1.09 0.95 0.68 0.79 0.76 Anthony Kennedy1.15 1.42 1.33 1.13 0.77 0.91 0.74 0.69 0.58 0.7 0.65 0.75 0.96 0.91 1.01 0.85 0.74 0.51 0.39 0.35 0.14   -0.4
Associate Justice * * * * 2.04 Stanley Forman Reed-0.99 -1.09 -1.01 -0.63 -0.24 0.18 0.03 -0.21 -0.01 0.25 0.56 0.7 1.07 1.18 1.22 1.3 1.48 1.49 1.09 0.87 Charles Evans Whittaker1.38 1.49 1.31 1.24 Byron White-0.04 0.02 -0.07 -0.05 0.11 0.19 0.15 0.29 0.61 0.78 1.05 0.61 0.61 0.53 0.32 -0.07 -0.05 0.14 0.07 0.02 0.47 0.75 0.96 1.18 1.2 0.96 1.03 0.8 0.56 0.53 0.52 Ruth Bader Ginsburg-0.33 -0.59 -0.66 -0.87 -1.11 -1.34 -1.69 -1.78 -1.78 -1.77 -1.79 -1.69 -1.45 -1.55 -1.51   0.13
Associate Justice Owen Roberts-0.04 0.38 1.04 1.73 1.95 2.22 2.6 2.97 Harold Burton0.49 0.55 0.89 0.96 0.96 0.98 0.93 1.23 1.32 1.29 1.29 1.28 1.13 Potter Stewart0.9 0.66 0.54 0.49 0.65 0.49 0.66 0.84 0.92 0.48 0.68 0.63 0.61 0.21 0.19 0.55 0.42 0.54 0.49 0.32 0.55 0.49 0.67 Sandra Day O'Connor1.5 1.65 1.58 1.45 1.24 1.34 1.52 1.44 1.43 1.01 0.56 0.7 0.88 0.67 0.71 0.82 0.91 0.78 0.73 0.49 0.31 0.23 0.18 0.08 -0.04 Samuel Alito1.4 1.38   0.9
Associate Justice Harlan Stone-0.81 -0.78 -0.78 -0.32 0.4 Robert Jackson0.23 0.27 0.19 0.24 0.64 1.05 1.18 1.33 0.94 0.82 0.74 0.96 0.87 John Marshall Harlan II0.91 1.14 1.35 1.64 1.78 1.91 2 2.29 2.51 2.52 2.33 2.2 1.88 1.32 0.81 0.68 0.59 William Rehnquist3.98 4.24 4.32 4.43 4.37 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.18 4.03 3.94 3.87 3.68 3.48 Antonin Scalia1.43 1.58 1.71 1.89 2.05 2.38 2.4 2.48 2.72 2.97 3.2 3.3 3.31 3.44 3.47 3.37 3.13 2.93 2.71 2.69 2.76 2.71   2.13
Associate Justice Pierce Butler1.84 2.1 Frank Murphy-1.58 -1.54 -1.5 -1.64 -1.74 -1.46 -1.35 -1.78 -1.72 -1.6 Tom C. Clark1.04 1.09 1.18 1.13 0.6 0.17 0.08 0.26 0.61 0.54 0.44 0.78 0.41 0.21 0.18 0.01 -0.07 0.07 Thurgood Marshall-0.96 -0.97 -0.9 -0.93 -1.03 -1.32 -1.48 -1.54 -2.11 -2.43 -2.73 -3.12 -3.4 -3.59 -3.72 -3.89 -3.95 -4.02 -4.09 -4.28 -4.42 -4.49 -4.46 -4.31 Clarence Thomas2.73 2.99 3.34 3.52 3.62 3.72 3.76 3.83 3.83 3.93 3.98 4.21 4.34 4.5 4.67 4.78 4.83   -0.07
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes-0.45 -0.3 0.3 0.84 Harlan Stone0.4 0.27 0.18 0.52 0.58 Fred Vinson0.44 0.58 0.88 1.11 1.23 1.44 1.35 Earl Warren0 -0.45 -1.07 -1.25 -1.51 -1.56 -1.53 -1.37 -1.47 -1.34 -1.29 -1.08 -1.16 -1.23 -1.24 -1.25 Warren Burger2.02 2.26 2.5 2.32 2.27 2.19 2.04 1.93 1.6 1.45 1.21 1.38 1.5 1.35 1.54 1.87 2.01 William Rehnquist3.24 2.83 2.69 2.5 2.26 1.96 1.89 1.71 1.71 1.68 1.54 1.49 1.71 1.62 1.63 1.39 1.22 1.39 1.5 John Roberts1.48 1.49 1.44 0.88
Associate Justice James Clark McReynolds2.9 2.91 2.68 2.18 * -0.19 Wiley Blount Rutledge-1.13 -1.16 -1.33 -1.16 -1.41 -1.75 -1.85 Sherman Minton1.16 1.31 1.37 1.19 0.86 0.88 0.92 William J. Brennan-0.62 -0.74 -0.75 -0.91 -0.92 -0.77 -1.01 -0.88 -0.74 -0.9 -1.06 -1.1 -0.98 -0.89 -0.99 -1.14 -1.41 -1.75 -2.03 -2.61 -2.9 -3.01 -3 -2.97 -2.82 -2.81 -2.65 -2.95 -3.14 -3.24 -3.5 -3.59 -3.7 -3.74 David Souter0.97 0.58 0.16 -0.37 -0.53 -0.57 -0.62 -0.77 -0.9 -1.26 -1.4 -1.52 -1.59 -1.72 -1.69 -1.58 -1.47 -1.48   -1.04
Associate Justice * * -1.74 Felix Frankfurter-1.29 -1.22 -0.71 0.09 0.42 0.43 0.41 0.67 1.03 0.91 0.65 0.38 0.24 0.08 0.05 0.38 0.39 0.7 0.9 1.28 1.6 1.77 1.85 1.86 Arthur Golberg-0.81 -0.95 -0.61 Abe Fortas-1.26 -1.35 -1.16 -1.01 n/a Harry Blackmun1.9 1.85 1.49 1.35 1.06 0.88 0.65 0.27 0.11 -0.07 -0.17 -0.49 -0.56 -0.11 -0.23 -0.79 -0.96 -0.96 -1 -0.88 -1.19 -1.44 -1.59 -1.86 Stephen Breyer-0.51 -0.74 -0.99 -1.07 -1.06 -1.05 -1.41 -1.42 -1.4 -1.32 -1.21 -1.48 -1.63 -1.63   -0.22
Associate Justice * * * -0.54 -0.5 William O. Douglas-2.91 -3.04 -2.98 -2.67 -2.3 -1.9 -1.71 -1.43 -1.53 -1.75 -1.61 -1.5 -1.71 -2.37 -2.97 -3.57 -4.03 -4.43 -4.72 -4.96 -5.1 -5.22 -5.32 -5.41 -5.51 -5.66 -5.79 -5.91 -6.02 -6.12 -6.2 -6.28 -6.35 -6.36 -6.4 -6.46 John Paul Stevens0.03 -0.14 -0.03 -0.31 -0.28 -0.28 -0.27 -0.57 -0.62 -0.51 -0.49 -0.6 -0.53 -0.66 -1.07 -1.77 -2.16 -2.33 -2.54 -2.9 -3.12 -3.21 -3.16 -3.11 -3 -2.84 -2.73 -2.58 -2.52 -2.41 -2.25 -2.2 -1.99   -2.85
Associate Justice Hugo Black-2.91 -3.19 -3.28 -3.31 -3.2 -2.94 -2.62 -2.5 -2.12 -1.94 -1.81 -1.66 -1.69 -1.64 -1.52 -1.23 -1.57 -1.65 -1.93 -2.11 -2.17 -2.06 -2.02 -1.89 -1.79 -1.71 -1.47 -0.98 -0.61 -0.32 -0.11 -0.01 0.08 0.06 Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr.1.52 1.31 1.26 1.15 0.96 0.72 0.46 0.8 0.81 0.82 0.88 1.09 0.95 0.68 0.79 0.76 Anthony Kennedy1.15 1.42 1.33 1.13 0.77 0.91 0.74 0.69 0.58 0.7 0.65 0.75 0.96 0.91 1.01 0.85 0.74 0.51 0.39 0.35 0.14   -0.4
Associate Justice * * * * 2.04 Stanley Forman Reed-0.99 -1.09 -1.01 -0.63 -0.24 0.18 0.03 -0.21 -0.01 0.25 0.56 0.7 1.07 1.18 1.22 1.3 1.48 1.49 1.09 0.87 Charles Evans Whittaker1.38 1.49 1.31 1.24 Byron White-0.04 0.02 -0.07 -0.05 0.11 0.19 0.15 0.29 0.61 0.78 1.05 0.61 0.61 0.53 0.32 -0.07 -0.05 0.14 0.07 0.02 0.47 0.75 0.96 1.18 1.2 0.96 1.03 0.8 0.56 0.53 0.52 Ruth Bader Ginsburg-0.33 -0.59 -0.66 -0.87 -1.11 -1.34 -1.69 -1.78 -1.78 -1.77 -1.79 -1.69 -1.45 -1.55 -1.51   0.13
Associate Justice Owen Roberts-0.04 0.38 1.04 1.73 1.95 2.22 2.6 2.97 Harold Burton0.49 0.55 0.89 0.96 0.96 0.98 0.93 1.23 1.32 1.29 1.29 1.28 1.13 Potter Stewart0.9 0.66 0.54 0.49 0.65 0.49 0.66 0.84 0.92 0.48 0.68 0.63 0.61 0.21 0.19 0.55 0.42 0.54 0.49 0.32 0.55 0.49 0.67 Sandra Day O'Connor1.5 1.65 1.58 1.45 1.24 1.34 1.52 1.44 1.43 1.01 0.56 0.7 0.88 0.67 0.71 0.82 0.91 0.78 0.73 0.49 0.31 0.23 0.18 0.08 -0.04 Samuel Alito1.4 1.38   0.9
Associate Justice Harlan Stone-0.81 -0.78 -0.78 -0.32 0.4 Robert Jackson0.23 0.27 0.19 0.24 0.64 1.05 1.18 1.33 0.94 0.82 0.74 0.96 0.87 John Marshall Harlan II0.91 1.14 1.35 1.64 1.78 1.91 2 2.29 2.51 2.52 2.33 2.2 1.88 1.32 0.81 0.68 0.59 William Rehnquist3.98 4.24 4.32 4.43 4.37 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.18 4.03 3.94 3.87 3.68 3.48 Antonin Scalia1.43 1.58 1.71 1.89 2.05 2.38 2.4 2.48 2.72 2.97 3.2 3.3 3.31 3.44 3.47 3.37 3.13 2.93 2.71 2.69 2.76 2.71   2.13
Associate Justice Pierce Butler1.84 2.1 Frank Murphy-1.58 -1.54 -1.5 -1.64 -1.74 -1.46 -1.35 -1.78 -1.72 -1.6 Tom C. Clark1.04 1.09 1.18 1.13 0.6 0.17 0.08 0.26 0.61 0.54 0.44 0.78 0.41 0.21 0.18 0.01 -0.07 0.07 Thurgood Marshall-0.96 -0.97 -0.9 -0.93 -1.03 -1.32 -1.48 -1.54 -2.11 -2.43 -2.73 -3.12 -3.4 -3.59 -3.72 -3.89 -3.95 -4.02 -4.09 -4.28 -4.42 -4.49 -4.46 -4.31 Clarence Thomas2.73 2.99 3.34 3.52 3.62 3.72 3.76 3.83 3.83 3.93 3.98 4.21 4.34 4.5 4.67 4.78 4.83   -0.07
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes-0.45 -0.3 0.3 0.84 Harlan Stone0.4 0.27 0.18 0.52 0.58 Fred Vinson0.44 0.58 0.88 1.11 1.23 1.44 1.35 Earl Warren0 -0.45 -1.07 -1.25 -1.51 -1.56 -1.53 -1.37 -1.47 -1.34 -1.29 -1.08 -1.16 -1.23 -1.24 -1.25 Warren Burger2.02 2.26 2.5 2.32 2.27 2.19 2.04 1.93 1.6 1.45 1.21 1.38 1.5 1.35 1.54 1.87 2.01 William Rehnquist3.24 2.83 2.69 2.5 2.26 1.96 1.89 1.71 1.71 1.68 1.54 1.49 1.71 1.62 1.63 1.39 1.22 1.39 1.5 John Roberts1.48 1.49 1.44 0.88
Associate Justice James Clark McReynolds2.9 2.91 2.68 2.18 * -0.19 Wiley Blount Rutledge-1.13 -1.16 -1.33 -1.16 -1.41 -1.75 -1.85 Sherman Minton1.16 1.31 1.37 1.19 0.86 0.88 0.92 William J. Brennan-0.62 -0.74 -0.75 -0.91 -0.92 -0.77 -1.01 -0.88 -0.74 -0.9 -1.06 -1.1 -0.98 -0.89 -0.99 -1.14 -1.41 -1.75 -2.03 -2.61 -2.9 -3.01 -3 -2.97 -2.82 -2.81 -2.65 -2.95 -3.14 -3.24 -3.5 -3.59 -3.7 -3.74 David Souter0.97 0.58 0.16 -0.37 -0.53 -0.57 -0.62 -0.77 -0.9 -1.26 -1.4 -1.52 -1.59 -1.72 -1.69 -1.58 -1.47 -1.48   -1.04
Associate Justice * * -1.74 Felix Frankfurter-1.29 -1.22 -0.71 0.09 0.42 0.43 0.41 0.67 1.03 0.91 0.65 0.38 0.24 0.08 0.05 0.38 0.39 0.7 0.9 1.28 1.6 1.77 1.85 1.86 Arthur Golberg-0.81 -0.95 -0.61 Abe Fortas-1.26 -1.35 -1.16 -1.01 n/a Harry Blackmun1.9 1.85 1.49 1.35 1.06 0.88 0.65 0.27 0.11 -0.07 -0.17 -0.49 -0.56 -0.11 -0.23 -0.79 -0.96 -0.96 -1 -0.88 -1.19 -1.44 -1.59 -1.86 Stephen Breyer-0.51 -0.74 -0.99 -1.07 -1.06 -1.05 -1.41 -1.42 -1.4 -1.32 -1.21 -1.48 -1.63 -1.63   -0.22
Associate Justice * * * -0.54 -0.5 William O. Douglas-2.91 -3.04 -2.98 -2.67 -2.3 -1.9 -1.71 -1.43 -1.53 -1.75 -1.61 -1.5 -1.71 -2.37 -2.97 -3.57 -4.03 -4.43 -4.72 -4.96 -5.1 -5.22 -5.32 -5.41 -5.51 -5.66 -5.79 -5.91 -6.02 -6.12 -6.2 -6.28 -6.35 -6.36 -6.4 -6.46 John Paul Stevens0.03 -0.14 -0.03 -0.31 -0.28 -0.28 -0.27 -0.57 -0.62 -0.51 -0.49 -0.6 -0.53 -0.66 -1.07 -1.77 -2.16 -2.33 -2.54 -2.9 -3.12 -3.21 -3.16 -3.11 -3 -2.84 -2.73 -2.58 -2.52 -2.41 -2.25 -2.2 -1.99   -2.85
Associate Justice Hugo Black-2.91 -3.19 -3.28 -3.31 -3.2 -2.94 -2.62 -2.5 -2.12 -1.94 -1.81 -1.66 -1.69 -1.64 -1.52 -1.23 -1.57 -1.65 -1.93 -2.11 -2.17 -2.06 -2.02 -1.89 -1.79 -1.71 -1.47 -0.98 -0.61 -0.32 -0.11 -0.01 0.08 0.06 Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr.1.52 1.31 1.26 1.15 0.96 0.72 0.46 0.8 0.81 0.82 0.88 1.09 0.95 0.68 0.79 0.76 Anthony Kennedy1.15 1.42 1.33 1.13 0.77 0.91 0.74 0.69 0.58 0.7 0.65 0.75 0.96 0.91 1.01 0.85 0.74 0.51 0.39 0.35 0.14   -0.4
Associate Justice * * * * 2.04 Stanley Forman Reed-0.99 -1.09 -1.01 -0.63 -0.24 0.18 0.03 -0.21 -0.01 0.25 0.56 0.7 1.07 1.18 1.22 1.3 1.48 1.49 1.09 0.87 Charles Evans Whittaker1.38 1.49 1.31 1.24 Byron White-0.04 0.02 -0.07 -0.05 0.11 0.19 0.15 0.29 0.61 0.78 1.05 0.61 0.61 0.53 0.32 -0.07 -0.05 0.14 0.07 0.02 0.47 0.75 0.96 1.18 1.2 0.96 1.03 0.8 0.56 0.53 0.52 Ruth Bader Ginsburg-0.33 -0.59 -0.66 -0.87 -1.11 -1.34 -1.69 -1.78 -1.78 -1.77 -1.79 -1.69 -1.45 -1.55 -1.51   0.13
Associate Justice Owen Roberts-0.04 0.38 1.04 1.73 1.95 2.22 2.6 2.97 Harold Burton0.49 0.55 0.89 0.96 0.96 0.98 0.93 1.23 1.32 1.29 1.29 1.28 1.13 Potter Stewart0.9 0.66 0.54 0.49 0.65 0.49 0.66 0.84 0.92 0.48 0.68 0.63 0.61 0.21 0.19 0.55 0.42 0.54 0.49 0.32 0.55 0.49 0.67 Sandra Day O'Connor1.5 1.65 1.58 1.45 1.24 1.34 1.52 1.44 1.43 1.01 0.56 0.7 0.88 0.67 0.71 0.82 0.91 0.78 0.73 0.49 0.31 0.23 0.18 0.08 -0.04 Samuel Alito1.4 1.38   0.9
Associate Justice Harlan Stone-0.81 -0.78 -0.78 -0.32 0.4 Robert Jackson0.23 0.27 0.19 0.24 0.64 1.05 1.18 1.33 0.94 0.82 0.74 0.96 0.87 John Marshall Harlan II0.91 1.14 1.35 1.64 1.78 1.91 2 2.29 2.51 2.52 2.33 2.2 1.88 1.32 0.81 0.68 0.59 William Rehnquist3.98 4.24 4.32 4.43 4.37 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.18 4.03 3.94 3.87 3.68 3.48 Antonin Scalia1.43 1.58 1.71 1.89 2.05 2.38 2.4 2.48 2.72 2.97 3.2 3.3 3.31 3.44 3.47 3.37 3.13 2.93 2.71 2.69 2.76 2.71   2.13
Associate Justice Pierce Butler1.84 2.1 Frank Murphy-1.58 -1.54 -1.5 -1.64 -1.74 -1.46 -1.35 -1.78 -1.72 -1.6 Tom C. Clark1.04 1.09 1.18 1.13 0.6 0.17 0.08 0.26 0.61 0.54 0.44 0.78 0.41 0.21 0.18 0.01 -0.07 0.07 Thurgood Marshall-0.96 -0.97 -0.9 -0.93 -1.03 -1.32 -1.48 -1.54 -2.11 -2.43 -2.73 -3.12 -3.4 -3.59 -3.72 -3.89 -3.95 -4.02 -4.09 -4.28 -4.42 -4.49 -4.46 -4.31 Clarence Thomas2.73 2.99 3.34 3.52 3.62 3.72 3.76 3.83 3.83 3.93 3.98 4.21 4.34 4.5 4.67 4.78 4.83   -0.07

*  James F. Byrnes
* *  Benjamin Cardozo
* * *  Louis Brandeis
* * * *  George Sutherland

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